After 15 years of testing stability of yield performance and repeatability of agronomic and commercial tuber quality attributes, the potato hybrid H020-30 was released for the Peruvian farmers with the name of UNALM-GUISI. The name of this new variety combines the University's Spanish acronym (UNALM) and GUISI as a dedication to the memory of our late student Guillermo Simbaña who died, in a sad and dark night of terrorist insanity, near to the field where he was evaluating the hybrid's agronomic performance.
Since the early days the University's Potato Program oriented its breeding research to identify and select good quality and highly productive hybrids well adapted to the country's main potato producing zones. These genetically complex characteristics required the production, maintenance and evaluation of a large number of hybrids. Because of this, the Program's scientists have evaluated several hundreds of thousands of these hybrids. In 1981, the International Potato Center (CIP) made available to the University (UNALM) 37 families. One of the families was constituted by 61 hybrids, each represented by one tuber, and one of these was selected and identified as H020-30. UNALM GUISI's progenitors are the Mexican variety CONCHITA and the Peruvian varieties YURACC TARMA and WILA IMILLA that originated and are well adapted to the country's Southern highlands.
UNALM GUISI'S plants are compact, 60 to 80 cm tall with elliptic leaflets and abundant flowering but no fruit setting. Plants are vigorous with 4-6 main stems of 2-3 cm diameter and 60-80 cm tall. The stems remain erect most of the growing season permitting an optimum reception of the light energy and maintaining an adequate soil coverage.
This variety produces between 15 to 20 tubers, of an uniform medium size and a predominantly round shape, per plant. The skin is from light red to pink and the flesh is from light cream to cream with a faint purple pigmentation. The eyes are semi-deep in the top end and shallow in the rest of the tuber and the sprouts are of a red-purple color. Tuber dry matter content ranges from 22 to 24% with a good cooking quality. The taste is near to that of the native varieties that is the house wives' preferred one. The attractive tuber skin color and texture, uniformity of size, good skin texture, good solids content and good taste ensure consumers' preference.
UNALM GUISI planting distance may be made at the traditional spacing of 1m between rows and 40 cm between plants. However, given the average plant size and to increase productivity per unit area, planting can be made at 80cm between rows and 35cm between plants.
The length of the growing season is of 150 days and this variety is recommended for the Central highlands.
This variety is tolerant to late blight (Phytophthora infestans), powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea) and leaf miner (Agromiza huidobrensis).
In experimental plots and seed multiplication fields of the National Agrarian University La Molina, UNALM GUISI has shown yields fluctuating from 25 to 35 t/ha.
In the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 growing seasons UNALM GUISI's performance was evaluated within the network for the National System of Evaluation of Genetic Resources. The trials were carried out with the active participation of the researchers of INIA (National Institute of Agricultural Research) experiment stations in Cajamarca, La Libertad, Ancash, Huanuco, Arequipa, Cusco, Tacna and Puno. During these evaluations UNALM GUISI showed a productivity that is higher than that of the majority of the most cultivated Peruvian potato varieties.
AVERAGE YIELD (t/ha) OF UNALM GUISI AND OTHER COMMERCIAL VARIETIES IN EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS INSTALLED IN CAJAMARCA, ANCASH, HUANUCO, AYACUCHO, AREQUIPA, CUSCO, PUNO AND TACNA (PERU):
|(*) Growing season with drought and frosts.|
At present, seed of UNALM GUISI is being multiplied in the INIA's experiment stations and it is found in farmers' fields in the Mantaro Valley (Jauja), Santa Cruz (Ancash) and Andahuaylas (Apurimac).